Hummingbirds generally arrive in Indiana at the beginning of April and stay through the summer.
They then migrate south in October, but some species remain here all year.
This article focuses on the migration routes of the Ruby-throated hummingbird, Anna’s hummingbird, and Rufous hummingbird.
The Anna’s hummingbird is a small bird with iridescent colors that are more noticeable at midday.
These tiny birds are often spotted by people when they are collecting nectar from flowers.
They hover above the flowers in an enthralling frenzy and sing a metallic song.
If you’re interested in observing these birds, look for them in your backyard.
In addition to feeding on the nectar from flowers, the hummingbird also feeds on insects.
This colorful bird builds a nest in a tree and lays two or three tiny white eggs.
They live in coniferous forests and mountain meadows.
They tend to be aggressive towards other hummingbirds and will frighten them away.
They are also not known to stay around during migration.
The Mexican Violetear is another migratory hummingbird that comes to Indiana.
This species can be spotted in the state, but it is not a common sight.
It is an accidental species, and only appeared in the state once in 2011.
It is a medium-sized hummingbird with violet patches on its head.
It breeds in forests in Mexico and Central America.
It can sometimes migrate as far south as central Texas.
Anna’s hummingbird comes to the state in the spring and early summer.
It migrates to Mexico in the winter.
In Indiana, it spends the entire spring and summer here.
During the summer, it may migrate north and interbreed with other species.
Although rare in Indiana, this species is relatively common in other parts of the country.
In addition to Anna’s, other hummingbirds, including the Ruby-throated and Broad-tailed Hummingbirds, are also common in the state.
Some may even winter in Mexico.
The female Anna’s hummingbird is pale green with a distinctive pale white line over each eye.
It is also capable of singing during courtship.
Its song is high-pitched and squeaky.
Its color is similar to the female Ruby-throated hummingbird, but the female has white and black tail feathers.
Anna’s hummingbird is a resident species of the West Coast.
Its wintering period is from late December to early February.
The hummingbird also migrates in the fall.
The first appearance in Indiana is unlikely until late March or early April.
The arrival of the Anna’s hummingbird depends on a variety of factors, including weather, abundance of insects and flowers.
The Ruby-throated hummingbird is the most common hummingbird found in the eastern half of the United States.
These colorful little birds have a green back and white underparts.
The males are often seen in a dive display or dancing around.
In some lighting conditions, they can appear black.
They are often seen during the spring and summer months.
In Indiana, you can expect to see the Ruby-throated hummingbird in your yard during this time.
You’ll find these tiny birds all over the state, and the male Ruby-throated hummingbird is one of the most visible.
Its bright red throat and emerald green back are distinguishable from its black tail and head.
Female Ruby-throated hummingbirds are smaller than males.
They have olive-green heads and blue tails.
These little birds migrate south during the winter, but some stay year-round in warm areas.
The fall migration of these hummingbirds begins around the beginning of October and lasts until mid-November.
This is the time when most hummingbirds leave Indiana, though some stay and overwinter in the state.
The start of fall migration is typically triggered by an internal clock in the bird, and shorter days with less sunlight trigger the migration.
There are six species of hummingbirds in Indiana, including the Ruby-throated hummingbird.
One species is regularly found in the state, while four others are rare or near-threatened.
Check out the list of species on ebird to learn more.
While some hummingbirds start their migration from Mexico, some begin their migration to the northern half of the United States and Canada.
Some species may also start their migration early, beginning in late March or early April.
However, the Ruby-throated hummingbird is the only species that nests in the state.
The female of this species spends a week preparing her nest and searching for mates.
During this time, the hummingbird builds a nest on a tree branch or large shrub, which is five to 50 feet off the ground.
She incubates the eggs for two weeks, and then feeds the young for another week.
She then begins building her second brood of nests.
If you live in Indiana and you’re interested in observing hummingbirds, you might want to try looking for Rufous hummingbirds.
They’re not as common as the ruby-throated, but you may see them during migration.
Rufous hummingbirds are brightly colored with a rosy throat, and they have green crowns and backs.
They also have red or orange throats and sides.
If you’d like to see Rufous hummingbirds in your area, you should look for them in your backyard during November or December.
These beautiful birds are usually on the move, but if you’re lucky, they may take up residence in your hummingbird feeder or flower garden.
However, you should be prepared for them to make life difficult for other species.
After a week or two, they’ll move on to another area.
Rufous hummingbirds can be very aggressive.
They often chase other hummers away from feeders.
This tiny hummingbird is orange with a white patch below its throat.
The male Rufous Hummingbird is quite striking in appearance.
It has a brilliant orange throat and green wings.
Rufous hummingbirds spend the summer and fall in the Pacific northwest, spending winters in the southern United States and Canada.
A few species of hummingbirds live in Indiana.
While the Ruby-throated hummingbird is native to the Northeast, it nests in Indiana.
The Ruby-throated Hummingbird can show up as early as the first week of April, but they will leave by the end of September.
Ruby-throated hummingbirds have a ruby red throat and a white collar.
Their tail feathers are banded white, black, and grey-green.
Rufous hummingbirds will be in Indiana during the fall, but they will not stay long.
You can learn more about hummingbirds by studying hummingbird checklists.
These checklists will help you identify which species are common in your area.
A good way to attract hummingbirds to your yard is by providing hummingbird feeders and perches.
If you have hummingbird feeders in your yard, place them near trees, shrubs, and bushes.
The nectar is important to hummingbirds, so change the nectar often.
Also, avoid using red dye in your nectar as this can spread disease.
It’s also important to avoid using herbicides and pesticides, as they can be harmful to birds.
Rufous hummingbirds are found in a wide variety of habitats, including forests, gardens, and parks.
They are easy to spot, because of their unique colors.
Rufous hummingbirds display a distinctive orange-red gorget, rust-colored flanks, and a black bill.
Males can also have green spots on their backs and on the crown of their heads.
They are around 3.5 inches long and weigh 3.2 grams.
Rufous hummingbird migration routes
The Rufous hummingbird migrates almost 4,000 miles from its breeding grounds in Mexico to its wintering grounds in the western United States.
During their migration, the birds can be seen moving north up the Pacific coast in spring and westward through the Rocky Mountains in late summer.
You can view this species’ migration routes by visiting the websites of Conservation International, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy, and World Wildlife Fund – US.
Unlike most other species of hummingbird, the Rufous hummingbird migrates by itself.
They follow their instincts, which were honed over many years of evolution.
The birds travel in groups, but most often they fly solo.
During their first southward migration, young birds will fly solo and rely on their instincts to guide them.
The Rufous hummingbird is rare in Indiana, but it may be seen during its migration routes.
It has a copper-orange back and a reddish-orange iridescent throat.
It is the smallest hummingbird in North America and prefers high mountain regions.
Its distinctive red or orange throat and streaked sides make it stand out when in flight.
The Rufous hummingbird migrates back and forth between the western United States and Mexico.
They may begin leaving their breeding grounds as early as February.
They follow the Rocky Mountains on their way south.
In the spring, the rufous hummingbird returns to their wintering grounds in the northwest.
Their migration routes can be long, and they may stop at the same feeders year after year.
During spring and fall, you may see Rufous hummingbirds in Indiana.
The rufous hummingbirds often come to Indiana in early April and leave again during the last week of October.
They are not common visitors to Indiana, but if you look for them, you may spot a nest or two during this time.
The Rufous hummingbird is a near-threatened species.
It typically resides in the western United States, although it is a very rare species in Indiana.